Third-generation biofuels

Although algae in the lab can produce biofuel feedstock yields up to 20 times greater than other vegetable matter, problems cultivating it on an industrial scale have so far prevented its commercial development for fuel. Producing 10% of the EU's fuel would require building ponds equivalent to three times the surface area of Belgium and the simple organisms can easily become victims of disease and predators, a problem known as pond crash. Oil major ExxonMobil has invested more heavily than most in the technology, but even its 2027 target for large-scale use now looks ambitious.

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